In a world where vitality and independence are essential for a fulfilling life, sarcopenia presents itself as a crucial challenge to overcome. This recent study, conducted by Dr. José López Chicharro and published in his exercise philosophy blog, reveals a clear path to overcoming the progressive loss of muscle mass, strength and function that defines this condition. Sarcopenia, often aggravated by chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and cancer, not only accelerates the progression of these ailments but also increases the risk of mortality, falls and a drastic reduction in quality of life, especially among older adults.

Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Sarcopenia

Structural changes in skeletal muscle


Aging brings with it the senescence of satellite cells and the loss of type II fibers, resulting in muscle atrophy and decreased contractile strength. This muscle weakness and sluggishness may seem unavoidable, but with the right knowledge, it is possible to combat them effectively.




Fatty infiltration of the muscles, known as myosteatosis, is common in patients with cardiometabolic diseases. Fat is deposited in the muscle, promoting a state of chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. However, with the right strategies, it is possible to reduce this infiltration and improve muscle function.


Muscle homeostasis and anabolic resistance


The key to maintaining muscle homeostasis lies in balancing anabolic and catabolic signals. Although age can make it difficult to respond to anabolic stimuli, understanding and acting on these mechanisms can make a big difference in the fight against sarcopenia.


Inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction


Chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction are factors that accelerate muscle degradation. By addressing these problems, we not only improve muscle protein synthesis but also counteract insulin resistance.


Neuronal pathway


Decreased motor neurons and reduced neuronal excitability with age contribute to muscle weakness. However, through appropriate interventions, we can preserve neuromuscular integrity and combat the progression of sarcopenia.

Strength Training as Treatment for Sarcopenia

Strength training is not just a tool; it is a key to a stronger, healthier life. Progressive training programs have been shown to increase muscle mass, strength and physical performance. Even one weekly training session can transform the lives of older adults.


Aerobic Exercise


Aerobic exercise, such as swimming, walking and running, not only improves cardiovascular fitness but also optimizes muscle quality by increasing mitochondrial activity. It is an integral part of a holistic approach to muscle health.

fisiopatología, ejercicio y nutrición

Nutritional Intervention

Protein and Amino Acids


A diet rich in protein and essential amino acids, such as leucine, is essential for muscle protein synthesis. Recommending adequate protein intake is essential for those seeking to maintain and improve muscle mass.


Strength training combined with protein supplementation


Combining a high-protein diet with strength training maximizes the benefits for muscle mass and strength. Evenly distributing protein intake throughout the day may be the secret to optimal results.


Testosterone Supplementation


Although testosterone supplementation can increase muscle mass in older men, it should be considered with caution due to potential adverse effects. Nevertheless, it is an option that, if well managed, can offer great benefits.


Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators


Drugs such as enobosarm show great potential for increasing lean muscle mass. As research progresses, these modulators could become powerful allies in the fight against sarcopenia.


Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)


ACE inhibitors, known for treating hypertension and heart failure, can also improve muscle function by increasing blood flow and reducing muscle catabolism. This innovative approach opens new doors to slowing the progression of sarcopenia.


In summary, the combination of strength exercise, proper diet and, in some cases, pharmacological interventions, is not only a strategy for managing sarcopenia; it is a formula for a more vigorous and fulfilling life. Every step we take in this direction is a step toward a better quality of life for older adults, demonstrating that it is never too late to regain strength and vitality.



In summary, the combination of strength exercise, proper diet and, in some cases, pharmacological interventions, is crucial to managing sarcopenia and improving quality of life in older adults.

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